Animals get sick no less often than humans. And they need treatment, including the injection of drugs. Self-medication is not worth it, but sometimes, even before visiting a veterinary clinic, you need to enter an analgesic or, on the recommendation of a doctor, give injections at home. Therefore, each owner should know how to inject a dog.
General recommendations for injection therapy
Dogs are given injections subcutaneously and intramuscularly. Recommendations for the administration of the drug are given by the veterinarian or this information is indicated in the instructions. The owner of the animal should carefully follow the recommended dosage and type of drug administration.
How to choose a syringe
In order to maximally deliver the injection, you should correctly select the volume of the syringe and the diameter of the needle. Small dogs and puppies can be given injections with an insulin syringe. The diameter of insulin needles in syringes of different manufacturers is 0.3, 025, 0.23 mm. The length of the needle also varies (4-8 mm).
Some syringes for tuberculin injections have a needle length of 13–25 mm with a diameter of 0.3–0.5 mm. This allows the medicine to be injected into the subcutaneous fatty tissue almost painlessly. But such a syringe has a small volume. A standard insulin syringe holds 1.0 ml of the solution and when a large dose of the drug is administered, it is impractical to use it.
In addition, the sharp tip of the insulin needle is quickly deformed, especially if the injection is placed in dense skin at the withers. It bends in the form of a hook, which is clearly visible with a strong optical zoom. Such deformation requires the use of greater force to insert the needle during repeated use and severely injures the tissue during removal.
For medium and large breeds of dogs, larger syringes are required, since the dose calculation is carried out depending on the body weight of the animal. Use medium-volume syringes (2 or 5 ml). In order to less injure tissue, you can put a needle of a smaller diameter with a suitable base to the cylinder of a large syringe.
When choosing the length of the needle should be guided by the place of delivery of the drug. If it is necessary to deliver an injection subcutaneously, then the insulin syringe will successfully cope with the task. The length of the insulin needle does not require tracking the depth of immersion with the introduction of the drug to medium and large dogs. It is just enough to not get into the muscle. But if you need to make an intramuscular injection, then an insulin syringe will not work and a longer needle is required.
In addition, when choosing a syringe and, especially, the diameter of the needle, the viscosity of the drug should be considered. Many veterinary drugs, especially prolonged action, are prepared on an oil basis. The high density of the drug does not allow the use of small diameter needles. For their introduction, it is recommended to use needles with a diameter of 0.5-0.7 mm.
The diameter of the needle, its length can be found in the information on the packaging of the syringe. To help in choosing the diameter of the needle, their plastic base is made in different colors.
For the injection, 8 types of syringes with a colored base are recommended for dogs:
- orange (0.5 mm);
- blue (0.6 mm);
- black (0.7mm);
- dark green (0.8 mm);
- yellow (0.9 mm);
- pink (1.2 mm).
And you also need insulin.
How to calculate the volume of medicine
Before you type medicine into a syringe, you need to familiarize yourself with the scale on its body. In order to correctly calculate how much medicine to take, it is recommended to determine the value of one division. To do this, subtract the smaller from the larger value and divide by the number of “scratches” between the two large divisions.
So, for example, in a 5 ml syringe, the calculation formula is as follows: (3-2) / 5 = 0.2. Therefore, one division of a 5-cc syringe is 0.2 ml. The exception is insulin syringes. Since their flask contains only 1 ml of solution, between large divisions, for example, between 1 and 2, only 0.2 ml is contained.
The ability to correctly calculate the "price" of divisions on a syringe will allow you not to lose a single drop of an expensive drug or to avoid complications when introducing extra milliliters of dangerous drugs. After the diameter of the needle and the volume of the syringe are selected, you should familiarize yourself with the rules of how to inject a dog subcutaneously or intramuscularly.
General rules for prescribing drugs
Regardless of the type of drug, there are general rules for dialing a solution into a syringe:
- Before the procedure, hands should be washed with soap and rubbed with alcohol or a disinfectant.
- The syringe needle must be sterile, so you can not touch it with your hands.
- The neck of the ampoule can also be treated with alcohol.
- Cut along the mark with a special nail file and, holding the cotton wool, gently chop.
- Insert the needle into the ampoule and, slowly pulling the plunger, collect the required amount of medicine.
- Turn the syringe upward with the cannula and, tapping the other hand with the finger of the other hand, ensure that air bubbles accumulate at the base of the needle.
- While pressing the piston, squeeze out air until a drop of medicine appears on the tip of the needle.
- If it is necessary to prepare the dog for drug administration, the needle is closed with a sterile cap and set aside.
It should be remembered that the medicine should be at room temperature. The introduction of a cold solution causes pain and can provoke tissue inflammation. The easiest way to warm the medicine is to hold and roll between the palms an ampoule with medicine or a syringe.
If the ampoule is opened, but not all the medicine is used, then you can dial another syringe and store it with a closed needle in the refrigerator. It is impossible to store an open ampoule and use the medicine from it the next day. You can store the medicine in the syringe for no longer than 3 days.
You can use only clearly labeled ampoules, which show the name of the medicine and the expiration date. Before entering the medicine into the syringe, you must read the instructions - some drugs should be mixed before shaking and administration by shaking the ampoule. Containers with erased markings must be discarded, even if the owner remembers what the medicine is. Do not jeopardize the life and health of the pet.
There must be instructions for the drug in order to know exactly the route of administration. So, for example, diphenhydramine can be administered only intramuscularly or intravenously. Calcium chloride is injected exclusively into a vein, and Essential N - only intramuscularly. An improperly selected delivery location can cause tissue abscess or necrosis. If the owner is not sure how to correctly inject the pet, consult a veterinarian.
It is not necessary to collect several drugs into the tank, if this is not specified in the instructions or has not been recommended by the veterinarian. Not all medicines can be combined. Some weaken the effect of each other, others enter into chemical reactions with the formation of toxic substances.
The technique of introducing medication under the skin
The most commonly used area for subcutaneous injection is the withers - a place for honey with the shoulder blades of the forepaws. There are few nerve endings, and even an inexperienced owner can be sure that he will not cause severe pain to the animal. But it should be borne in mind that the skin in this area is thicker, and the needle of a small diameter can be deformed or broken. It should be administered slowly, carefully.
A subcutaneous injection can be made between the lower part of the lateral surface of the abdomen and the convex part of the thigh. They grab the skin with their fingers in a crease, pull it up a little, spread the fingers with their fingers and insert the needle at an angle of 45 °. The needle in the thickness of the skin comes with resistance. Only when the needle “falls through” can you be sure that the tip is under the skin and the drug should be administered.
It is not necessary to pre-treat the epidermis with a disinfectant. Dogs on the skin surface have their own antibacterial barrier. Injections need only be put in place with an intact epidermis.
Technique of injection into the thickness of the muscle
The technique of intramuscular injection is somewhat more complicated, since there is a risk of getting into the capillary or nerve. An injection is placed at the withers or a large muscle on the thigh. It is better to introduce painful preparations at the withers. They inject into the thigh in the area to the side of the knee, above the knee fold. To clearly define the muscle, you can bend the dog’s foot in the knee.
With intramuscular injection, the needle is inserted at right angles into the relaxed muscle. If the muscle is tense, it can be lightly massaged, the dog can be soothed with a voice, stroked.
For dogs up to 10 kg, a needle is injected into the muscle by 0.7-1.5 mm. Representatives of medium and large breeds are injected to a depth of 1.5-3.5 mm. Rapid administration of the drug can cause pain in the dog. Therefore, you should give an injection with confidence, insert the needle slowly, tracking the resistance and not allowing the needle to penetrate too deep into the tissue.
Alcohol should be burned with the injection site if blood appears when the needle is removed. Do not force the animal. It is necessary to reassure him, to prepare for the injection mentally. It is easier to perform the manipulations together, when one holds the dog, calms it, and the other calmly makes an injection.
With the right injection site and following all the rules, there are no complications. But for some time the owner must monitor the condition of the dog after the injection, and if the animal behaves unusually - limps, whines, gets nervous, then it is necessary to show the animal to the veterinarian. Each owner of the dog should be able to give injections, because the life of the pet may depend on his skill and determination.