Calcivirosis in cats and cats

Calcivirosis in cats is an acute infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the oral mucosa, conjunctiva, and respiratory system. The disease is quite dangerous, so you need to protect your pet from him. Today we will talk about the pathogen, symptoms, methods of treatment and prevention of this disease. What causes calcivirosis in cats? What are the symptoms of this infectious disease? Calcivirosis in a cat is caused by an RNA-containing virus from the family Caliciviridae. In addition, there are more than 20 serotypes of this virus, therefore a large number of specific antibodies are produced.

How and to whom can calcivirosis be transmitted from a cat?

How is calcivirosis transmitted in cats? Most susceptible kittens are 2-12 months old. Tiny and newborn whiskers are protected thanks to mother’s antibodies, which enter the body of babies with milk (provided that the mother was vaccinated against this disease). As soon as the pet becomes ill, it becomes dangerous for the surrounding cats, because it spreads the virus with saliva, urine and feces.

Even after complete recovery for a long time (several months), the virus carrier remains. Because of this, if some cat had calcivirus in the area, and she walks on the street, or the contents of the tray are thrown out onto the street, then this place will be dangerous for a long time (the disease is stationary). Most often, seals get sick in the cold season and during the period when it rains.

Infection occurs both by airborne droplets and alimentarily (with food and water). However, how exactly the disease develops has not yet been studied in detail. It has only been established that the virus multiplies in the tissues of the conjunctiva, mouth and respiratory system.

Symptoms

Symptoms of calcivirosis in cats appear after the incubation period is over, which lasts an average of 1-3 days (in a chronic course, the disease can last 19 days).

  • The first signs of the disease are refusal of feed, lethargy.
  • Respiratory organs also suffer. There is a cough, sneezing (later pneumonia develops), the mucous membrane of the nose and mouth swells.
  • The conjunctiva turns red, becomes inflamed, serous exudate first accumulates in the corners of the eyes, in more advanced cases, pus forms.
  • The most striking symptom of calcivirosis in a cat is increased salivation (salivation). On the back of the nose, the root of the tongue of the mucous membrane of the nasal and oral cavities, first small vesicles are formed, which then burst, and an erosive surface (ulcers) opens under them.

Often, this disease is complicated by the addition of a second (secondary) microflora, which leads to the development of pneumonia in a cat. Body temperature rises. On average, the disease lasts 7-21 days.

Treatment

How to treat calcivirosis in cats? Treatment for a cat should begin with an accurate diagnosis. After all, calcivirosis can be confused with panleukopenia, chlamydia, herpesvirus. Therefore, without confirming the diagnosis, treatment cannot be started (each infectious disease has its own pathogen, and, therefore, its own specific treatment). So with cats calcivirosis it is necessary to prescribe a specific hyperimmune serum containing ready-made antibodies to the pathogen.

If the doctor doubts whether or not there is time to confirm the diagnosis, nevertheless, cultivation (cultivation, in simple terms) of the virus in a cell culture will take time, then polyvalent (multicomponent) hyperimmune serum should be immediately administered immediately against three infectious diseases: panleukopenia, calicivirus, infectious rhinotracheitis.

Important points to consider when treating a cat for calcivirosis:

Saline solutions

If the animal does not eat for a long time or if it has vomiting, diarrhea, high temperature for a long time, then droppers are placed or physiological solutions are injected subcutaneously (it can be 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 5% glucose solution, or Ringer’s ready-made solution -Loca), which are administered in a dosage of 20-50 ml every 6-12 hours. Remember that subcutaneously at a time (in one place) is not recommended to inject more than 20 ml.

It is good to alternate these solutions with each other. for example, sodium chloride was introduced in the morning, glucose at lunchtime, then again brine, and again glucose. The fact is that glucose perfectly removes intoxication, accelerates the removal of toxins, but the sodium chloride solution restores the water-salt balance, which is disturbed during dehydration. It is these alternations that help to avoid cell death.

Diet therapy

After recovery, diet therapy is necessary, and probiotics (drugs that restore the beneficial microflora in the intestine) are also introduced into the diet. And remember that even after full recovery, your pet is not safe, since immunity lasts only six months, however, the virus carrier remains. Therefore, remember about the prevention of calcivirosis.

Other drugs and therapy

Other drugs for calcivirosis in cats:

AntibioticsIn order not to develop pneumonia, antibiotics are prescribed (use according to the instructions).
Vitamins

Vitamin therapy helps the immune system to strengthen, and the forces recover. Vitamins B and C are good (as many know, this is ascorbic). You can also complex preparations, which include several vitamins (tetravit, trivit, oligovit, multivit) or vitamins + minerals.

Metabolism Accelerating DrugsThe "accelerator" of metabolic processes (catazal, antitox and their analogues) help to accelerate the excretion of metabolic products. Intoxication is removed. The animal recovers faster and recovers more easily after an illness.
Symptomatic therapySymptomatic therapy drugs are also prescribed to support cardiac, digestive and respiratory activities.

Prevention

Prevention of calcivirosis in cats primarily depends on timely vaccination. It must be carried out at 2-3 months of age after twice conducted deworming. You may be offered several vaccines to choose from. Live and inactivated, monovalent (against one disease) or polyvalent (complex, against several infectious diseases). Immunity after vaccination lasts up to a year, so every year be sure to "update" vaccination against calcivirosis in cats.

A little bit about vaccines and vaccinations

The most popular vaccines for calcivirosis are Multifel-2 (against IRT and calicivirosis), Multifel-3 (calicivirosis, rhinotracheitis and panleukopenia) and Multifel-4 (chlamydia is also added to the previously listed three infectious diseases). Dose per animal - 1 ml of vaccine. The kitten is brought back in 20-28 days, however, during this “waiting” period (and also 14 days after the repeated administration of the inactivated virus), do not let the baby go outside, do not let him communicate with other cats (even if they are apparently healthy). The immunity will form only 2 weeks after the repeated administration of the same vaccine (that is, you cannot inject multifel-4 for the first time, and then multifel-2).

The first vaccination of a kitten is carried out at the age of 8-12 weeks of age. But only a completely healthy animal is vaccinated. Therefore, if your mustache has recently had no appetite, it was lethargic or was ill with something, then take your time. Otherwise, after vaccination, he can only get worse (up to the point that he will get one of those diseases that the owner so wants to protect him from).

Worms also "undermine" the immune system, not "allowing" it to produce antibodies. Although vaccines are inactivated, but still this is not harmless water, otherwise what would be the use of them? Your next visit will be scheduled when the kitten is 10-12 months old. This time you do not need to bring a kitten after 20 days (provided that you vaccinated him at the age of 2-3 months).

Do not be afraid of vaccination. If your pet is healthy, then everything will go well. A slight increase in temperature on the first day, a slight swelling and redness at the injection site, loss of appetite should not scare you. However, if the next day the situation does not change or worsens, then do not hesitate to contact the veterinarian for advice or help. In addition to vaccination, monitor where your mustache lives, what eats and with whom it communicates. Avoid contact with stray or "suspicious" (seemingly sick) animals. If you know that a neighbor has recently had a cat, then try to limit contacts between animals (and it is not advisable that your pet communicate with someone from the environment who has been ill with purses, since there are many factors that transmit the virus). Do not take care items and toys that belonged to another animal. The virus is stable in the external environment, so it is easy to "live" more than one week on the surface of these objects. Do not risk the life of your puss. And remember about vaccination.

Still have questions? You can ask them to the veterinarian of our site in the comments box below, which will respond to them as soon as possible.

Watch the video: Emergency Cat Health Care : Treat a Cat with a Calicivirus (November 2019).