The salivary glands are several pairs of organs that produce the secret necessary for digestion, containing about 90% water and a set of organic and inorganic compounds. There are sublingual, submandibular, parotid and zygomatic glands. Inflammation of the salivary glands in dogs can be non-infectious (a disease called sialadenitis) or be caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi (this is mumps). What treatment is required for this disease - medication or surgery - depends on the cause of the disease.
Reasons for development
Dogs can cause inflammation in the salivary glands:
- Gland injuries;
- Penetration into the tissue of the gland of pathogens against the background of a decrease in the resistance (resistance) of the dog's body;
- The spread of an infectious agent from other organs;
- Stones of the salivary ducts formed when the dog’s body disrupts calcium metabolism or water-salt balance;
- Dental diseases (stomatitis, gingivitis, tooth root abscess);
- The presence of tartar blocking the salivary duct;
- Malignant or benign tumors of the salivary glands;
- Congenital or acquired anatomical abnormalities of the organ;
- Frequent hypothermia of the animal.
According to dog breeders, in some dog breeds there is a genetic predisposition to the development of this pathology. At risk are German shepherds, boxers, dachshunds, poodles and greyhounds. As for the types of disease, sialadenitis is more often observed in young animals, and mumps in dogs over the age of 6 years.
The clinical manifestations of the disease are quite characteristic, and it is not difficult to detect them. Profuse salivation is the most typical sign, other symptoms of inflammation in a dog's salivary glands may be:
- Difficulty in eating - due to pain, the animal can hardly swallow.
- Due to tissue edema, a swelling forms under the jaw or below the ears.
- Pain syndrome causes the dog to avoid touching the head and neck.
- With infectious mumps, a local increase in temperature is often observed.
Attention! If an abscess forms on the inflamed area of the gland, it does not always open itself independently. A ripened abscess causes the dog severe pain, it does not find a place for itself, stops eating. An unpleasant smell is heard from a constantly ajar mouth, viscous saliva flows. If you notice such signs in your pet, immediately go with the dog to the veterinarian: an abscess of the salivary gland is fraught with very unpleasant consequences.
An experienced veterinarian can make a preliminary diagnosis by examining the dog and palpating the glands. To determine the cause of inflammation of the salivary gland, you will need to:
- Blood test (in the presence of an inflammatory process in the body, the level of leukocytes in the blood will be increased);
- Biopsy (such a study is necessary to exclude the oncological cause of the disease and to identify the type of pathogen, if the pathology is of an infectious nature);
- Radiography or fluoroscopy of the skull (this allows you to detect such causes of the disease as the presence of a tumor, anatomical anomalies in the structure of the organ or salt conglomerates that block the lumen of the ducts of the gland).
The veterinarian makes the choice of a method for treating inflammation of the salivary gland in a dog, depending on the cause of the development of the pathology, and can be either conservative or surgical.
Conservative treatment is usually used for an infectious form of the disease - mumps. The dog is prescribed antibacterial drugs, the duration of the course of their administration is about two weeks. Before taking antibiotics, a test is carried out on the sensitivity of the pathogen to the drug.
Symptomatic treatment includes the use of analgesics (Analgin, Baralgin, Revalgin, Spazgan). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen, Dexamethasone, Carprofen, Prednisolone) can also be prescribed for the removal of inflammation and pain. When an abscess forms on the gland, external preparations are used that have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects (Vishnevsky liniment, Ichthyol ointment).
In order to increase immunity, immunomodulators (Anfluron, Roncoleukin, Gamavitforte) and vitamins are prescribed for the dog.
Indications for surgery on the salivary gland are:
- penetrating wound
- anatomical organ abnormality,
- neoplasm or stone, narrowing or blocking the ducts of the gland.
Operations are performed under general anesthesia; in the postoperative period, the dog is usually prescribed a course of antibiotic therapy.
Dog Care Tips
When treating inflammation of the salivary gland at home, the pet should be provided with warmth and complete rest. The doctor may recommend putting warming alcohol compresses on the dog and periodically warm the inflamed area with a blue lamp (Minin reflector). To make it easier for the dog to swallow, the food should be slightly warm, semi-liquid.
You can reduce the risk of developing an inflammatory process in the salivary glands in a dog, observing a number of simple recommendations:
- try to prevent injuries to the head of the animal;
- avoid frequent hypothermia;
- remove tartar from the dog in time and treat dental diseases.
A regular preventive measure of any disease is a regular visit to a veterinary clinic for routine examinations.