In dogs, helminthiases (the presence of worms) can be considered the most common diseases. Often, the owners do not consider this issue particularly relevant and ignore the symptoms of a developing disease. As a result, there are such dangerous signs as a dog’s cough from worms, vomiting with parasites, and convulsions.
Effects on the body
The causes of the danger of helminthiasis lie in the action of the parasite on the body:
- It reduces the level of immunity during vaccination.
- It is a contributing factor in the development of immunocompromised diseases, and also provokes the progression of chronically occurring diseases.
- Causes varying degrees of intoxication (depending on the level of infection).
- May lead to blockage and rupture of the intestines. In this case, feces enter the abdominal cavity, which in turn causes peritonitis. In most cases, this picture is fatal.
- Numerous microscopic hemorrhages appear.
- Inflammatory processes develop.
- Some parasites can affect the heart muscle, which also often leads to death.
Types of helminths
All helminths belong to worms, they can be divided into two types: round and flat. Among flatworms, tapeworms and actually flatworms stand out.
Thus, 3 types of helminths can be distinguished:
- Trematodes. A class of flatworms. There are over 3000 species. They have a complex development cycle. The sexually mature individual has a leaf-shaped shape. There are two suction cups on the body for fixation in the host body. They are hermaphrodites.
- Cestodes. This class of parasitic worms includes a detachment of lentets and tapeworms. This class is characterized by a ribbon-like body, divided into segments (segments). There are suction cups or hooks on the head (scolex). They are biohelminths, their reproduction cycle occurs with the change of 2-3 hosts.
- Nematodes. Type of roundworm. It is characteristic of them that in the cross section of the body all the representatives have the shape of a circle. They are dioecious. There are 24 thousand species, most of which are free-living.
Dog diseases caused by trematodes
Etiology. The disease is caused by alaria, which have a size of not more than 0.4 cm. Invasive larvae swim in fresh water, parasitize in tadpoles and frogs. Penetrate into the body when swallowing larvae. Alaria parasitize in the small intestine. During the development cycle, they migrate to the stomach.
Symptoms Paroxysmal cough, wheezing, possibly shortness of breath. With severe invasion against the background of intoxication, diarrhea or constipation, vomiting, and lack of appetite are noted. May occur amid fever.
Treatment. Preparations based on aricolin, hexihol, polytrem.
Etiology. The parasite is less than a centimeter in length. They penetrate the body when swallowing larvae that affect fish, and can also be directly in the water. Parasitize in the pancreas, gall bladder, bile ducts, liver.
Symptoms Cause a fever (this is due to the developing inflammatory process of the affected organs). Due to obstructive jaundice, staining of visible mucous membranes in yellow is noted. Symptoms of intoxication are noted: dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, as well as a strong cough. Feces are yellow or white. Severe pain in the liver.
Preparations: praziquantel, populin, albendazole, chloxyl.
Etiology. The parasites are egg-shaped, flattened in the dorsoventral direction. The length varies from 1 to 1.3 cm. The larvae parasitize in small crustaceans, when eaten, the dogs become infected.
Symptoms Cough, diarrhea, vomiting (may be mixed with foam), fever, convulsive seizures, allergic manifestations.
Preparations. Medicines are based on praziquantel.
Diseases of dogs caused by cestodes
Etiology. The largest parasites of infecting dogs, their length in mature individuals can reach 10 meters. Infection occurs by eating raw fish.
Symptoms The cestode releases a large amount of toxins, which leads to severe intoxication in an infected dog. Clinically manifested by bloating, diarrhea, vomiting, intermittent diarrhea with constipation, no appetite, dehydration can be observed.
Therapy is carried out with preparations containing rentals, cestal, cestex, bunamidine.
Etiology. The size of the parasite can reach 30-40 centimeters. Helminth penetrates the body when swallowing infected blood-sucking insects.
Symptomatology severe intoxication: dehydration, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea.
Treatment. Dipilidia are sensitive to the action of arecoline, praziquantel, phenasal.
Etiology. Echinococci have a length of up to 1 cm. They are localized in the intestine.
Symptoms The disease is especially difficult in puppies and young dogs. Symptoms of severe intoxication.
For treatment used rentals, cestex, lopatol, bunamidin.
Nematode Dog Diseases
Etiology. The size of helminths is from 1 to 2 cm. Parasites feed on blood. Infection can occur through damaged skin or with food.
Symptoms At the initial stage of development, the disease is asymptomatic. With growth, helminths injure the intestinal wall, which is manifested by an admixture of blood in feces of various intensities. The dog may be lethargic and lethargic due to anemia. Visible mucous membranes become pale.
Therapy conducted praziquantel, pyrantel, mebendazole, fembendazole.
Etiology. Parasites are white or yellow-white. Size reaches 8 centimeters. Infection occurs at the place of walking the dogs alimentary way. And also infection can occur through reservoir animals. Parasitizes in the small intestine.
Manifested gastrointestinal upset, vomiting, no appetite. There is a progressive depletion of the animal.
Therapy: pyrantel, ditrazine, fenbendazole, mebendazole.
Etiology. The worms have a yellow-white color and a length of up to 20 cm. They penetrate the body by alimentary route at the place of walking the dogs. Parasites affect the tissues of the heart, liver, lungs.
The clinical picture: GI upset, cough, pneumonia, bronchitis, cramps. Anorexia progresses. Without timely qualified assistance, death is possible.
Therapy toxacarose is performed using pyrantel, ditrazine, fembendazole, mebendazole.
Ethology. The disease can cause two types of diprofolaria. Cardiac worms affect the heart muscle and pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary worms are localized in the subcutaneous tissue and organs of vision. The dimensions of the parasite depend on the sex and are 25-310 mm. Infection occurs with the bite of blood-sucking insects.
Symptoms It manifests itself in the form of heart failure and fever. Because of this, edema, dermatitis, malaise, weakness develop, exhaustion progresses. With damage to the organs of vision, their function may be impaired.
Treatment carried out by selamectin.
You need to purchase specialized anthelmintic drugs for pets at a veterinary pharmacy. We remind you that human remedies are not suitable, since there is a completely different content of active substances, moreover, human parasites are very different from helminths of animals. It is worth noting that it is better for puppies to purchase special preparations created specifically for puppies.
Recommended medications are listed in the table above. Dosage, method of use depends on the specific agent. All of them are safe for the dog, but with deworming, negative consequences are possible that are associated with the death of parasites and the decomposition of their body inside the host. To avoid unpleasant results, you must follow certain rules.
All of them are aimed at reducing the possibility of excessive intoxication of the animal's body:
- It is necessary to strictly follow the instructions.
- Before deworming, you need to consult a veterinarian, examine the state of the animal’s body.
- It is advisable to feed the drug to the dog in the morning, so that you can monitor the reaction to the medicine during the day.
- With severe liver damage, symptomatic therapy must first be performed. And only then carry out deworming.
- If the dog vomits from the smallest amount of food, then use drops that drip to the withers. The active substance kills parasites through the blood.
- The first scheduled deworming is carried out not earlier than 2 months of life (usually 3 months). But if you already have helminthiasis, you can start treatment earlier.
- Before the procedure, it is necessary to get rid of fleas and other blood-sucking cutaneous parasites. Such training should be carried out in all domestic animals, as fleas, ticks and itch can move from one pet to another.
Prevention is needed, since getting rid of parasites is accompanied by severe torment, and picking them up on the street is very easy.
Therefore, it is necessary to follow certain rules so that the dog does not get sick:
- The main rule of prevention is annual planned deworming. It is she who gives the highest (but not 100%) guarantee that the pet will not become infected with helminths.
- Since the main source of infection is small wild animals (frogs, rats, etc.), attempts to hunt the dog should be prevented.
- It is also advisable to avoid games with hand-picked sticks and other dirty objects.
- In general, it is necessary that the pet walked in the muzzle on the street, as it can become infected with helminths by eating grass (and dogs sometimes do this), drinking from a natural source.
- Before mating, the expectant mother must be dewormed.
- Puppies must be given anthelmintic drugs as planned in 2-3 months, then in six months and a year.