Terrier - burrowing hunting dog, fox - fox, and the smooth-haired Fox Terrier is one of the varieties of fox burrows, which has become the “fruit” of the English debate and excitement. The undersized hunters were intentionally bred at the end of the 18th century, but in primary use they were considered as exterminators of rats. A little later, in the XX century, the world became acquainted with the second variety of the breed - wire-haired Fox Terrier. It should be noted that the four-legged were always regarded as companions, and only after, as working dogs, but first things first.
Dog breed smooth-haired Fox Terrier was bred in England. The first breeder was the already famous priest John Russell. Today, the reverend is mentioned under the name Jack and it was his labors that Jack Russell Terriers and Parson Russell Terriers were obtained. The history of the breed has two sides, one of which makes the breeder almost a fraud, but let's rely on known facts. The priest was an avid hunter, or rather, he loved the hunting process, but he was not particularly interested in the outcome. John enjoyed observing the work of dogs, which was an incentive to improve the working skills of the four-legged.
It is interesting! It is believed that the ancestors of all existing terriers is the Peat Dog, which already lived on the planet 2.5 t. BC.
It is known that the main number of John's dogs was represented by the early Fox Terriers, breeding with which led to the emergence of Jack Russell. At the same time, the Fox Terriers cannot be called an intermediate link, since the breed has a strong gene pool and was widespread in England. It is assumed that in The breeding of "fox dogs" involved a large number of terriers, including sports varieties.
The term fox dog itself is applicable to many English commercial dogs, as hunting has always been a common "hobby" of the English nobility. Fishing for fur animals was no stranger to ordinary citizens, especially at a time when the export of hides became industrial.
It is interesting! All Fox Terriers have similar performance characteristics, but they preferred to know smooth-haired dogs, since they were not so dirty during the hunt.
Since the Beagle, Greyhounds, and Bulldogs were already widespread in England during the formation of the breed, it is possible to assume that these breeds were included in breeding work in the Black and Ten Terriers. However, the main progenitor of the Fox Terriers was the Black and Tan Terrier (today considered extinct) - small (up to 30 cm at the withers) dog, aggressive towards the beast, bold and faithful.
A logical question arises - why was it necessary to breed a new breed if the British already had a universal hunter? It's all about tricolor color! Light dogs, even according to the results of modern research, are more preferable in assessing the appearance. In addition, white hair made the four-legged distinguishable in the field. The four-legged hunter fights with a fox in a hole, and the hounds wait on the surface, and when the victim leaves his "bastion", the terrier jumps out too. Soiled with earth, scratched and smelling of fox doggie can easily become an accidental victim of "colleagues". White coat (spots, color) reduces the risk of death of the terrier from the teeth of the hounds.
By 1796, fox hunting received "national sport status" and British hunters established the first mixed terrier club. By the middle of the 18th century, any self-respecting hunter had a pack of working dogs, among which were necessarily the early Fox Terriers or the Black and Tan Terriers. The beginning of the fox hunting season was elevated to the rank of a national holiday, and burrow dogs were honored at the level of national symbols.
Competitions and trials were held among the terriers, the champions were awarded and respected in their circles. Naturally, the descendants of the dogs of John Russell were highly valued, although at that time, Jack Russell was no less popular.
At the beginning of the 19th century, several tribal Fox Terrier clubs formed in England. Dogs that visually fit the description of the breed improved by closely related mating, but each club had its own founder of the line. By the years 1850-1860, Fox Terriers not only began to appear at exhibitions, but were also brought into a separate class. In 1962, representatives of the breed were first divided, but by sex. And in 1886 they held a specialized exhibition, where wire-haired and smooth-haired Fox Terriers already performed in separate rings.
It is interesting! Francis Redmont is a breeder¸ who devoted 50 years of life to the Fox Terriers and founded the largest breeding nursery. Among Redmont terriers, 23 dogs won the highest award in assessing the exterior and working qualities, and 10 tetrapods were recognized as an elite - this is an absolute record among all the breeding terrier clubs that have ever existed.
In the years 1860-1870, the breed experienced a transitional period, the earlier, rougher type, was close to the breed standard that is known today. At the dawn of the XIX century Fox Terriers actively spread throughout Europe. Many dogs were exported to Germany and neighboring countries. German breeders rated the breed so highly that by the middle of the 19th century the largest breeding nurseries had formed in the country.
In the First and Second World Wars, Fox Terriers were used as signalmen, some dogs even received state awards. However, military conflicts destroyed the economies of the countries, which could not but affect the scale of tribal work. Fox terriers saved their numbers. It is known that at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries the number of smooth-haired dogs registered in Great Britain “exceeded” 17 thousand.
A smooth-haired Fox Terrier stance is compared to a horse, and at that moment when the animal is still standing, but is ready to make a jerk and run. The dog should have a harmonious build, a well-defined and well-developed skeleton, not too long, but not short legs.
The temperament of the Fox Terriers is lively and agile, friendly but courageous.. For the breed, operational trials are not necessary, but anger towards the beast is a fundamental characteristic. In an informal setting, representatives of the breed always remain vigilant and attentive, their "mood" is emphasized by the expression of their faces and eyes.
Despite its small size and short back, the Fox Terrier must occupy a vast space, being in the rack. Sexual dimorphism is pronounced, but not bright. Females differ in expression of their muzzle and (not always) are inferior to males in size. The growth of dogs is not regulated by the standard and varies in the ranges of 33-41 cm. For working individuals, growth up to 38 cm is preferable. The weight limits are clearly stated:
• Male: 7.3-8.2 kg.
• Bitch: 6.8-7.7 kg.
- Head - not wide, flat forehead, tapering to the eye arches. The transition to the front is not pronounced, the muzzle is almost rectangular, only slightly tapering. The jaws are very strong, muscular. The cheekbones are flat, the cheeks and the space under the eyes is medium filled. The end of the muzzle is neatly rounded.
- Teeth - large, white, even and upright. The bite is exceptionally correct (scissor-shaped) without a gap and the slightest curvature of the incisors.
- Nose - the black.
- Eyes - round or moderately oval, small, set straight, set deep. The color is as dark as possible, brown. Look alert, interested, cheerful.
- Ears - medium thickness, refracted in the second third. The fracture line is above the forehead, the tips dropped down are directed towards the cheekbones and should not hang down on the sides of the head.
- Body - compact, fits into a not too elongated rectangle. The neck is not too long, graceful, expands to the shoulder girdle. The chest is deep, but not wide, the rib section is short, the false ribs are set deep and are not visible. The back is very strong, even, short, the lower back is moderate, the croup is sloping.
- Limbs - the front legs are set perpendicular to the ground, the rear legs are pulled out of the line of the hull. The shoulders are well-slanted, the entire front leg is straight, strong, the wrist should not stand out much. The hind legs look more powerful than the front, confidently placed, give the impression of strength and stability. The hips are elongated, the knees are very strong, the hocks are parallel, the metatarsus is lowered to the ground. Brushes are voluminous, strong, rounded, assembled. Paw pads are durable, pigmented. Claws of moderate length, strong, bent.
- Tail - in its natural form (if stopping is prohibited in the country) or stopped by two-thirds without curls, knots and curvatures. Set on and carried high (saber).
Type of coat and color
Of course, wire-haired terriers look more impressive in the photo, but the smooth-haired four-legged dogs have their own advantages. Firstly, smooth-haired dogs slower pollution even when it comes to field work, and secondly, they do not need to be trimmed. The rest of the hair is dense, thick, hard, of uniform length, only on the muzzle and legs the hair is slightly shorter. Color tricolor - the base is white, spots are black, black or brown. Bright red, pure brown spots are not desirable, as is tiger on the markings.
Character and training
The breed characteristic declared by the standard describes Fox as a companion, defender and indefatigable hard worker. Indeed, only by the expression of the muzzle of the dog can we understand that she is always ready for action, and the venerable age is not a hindrance. It is worth considering that the character of a smooth-haired Fox Terrier has two sides, and with which of them you will have to live, depends on the socialization of the dog. Training a pet to live in harmony with the outside world is no less important than training.
Puppies of a smooth-haired Fox Terrier are very sociable, they strive to look at the owner in the face and lick his cheek, run around with relatives and even fight in a “childish way”. The more “freedom” a child will receive for mental development, the better, but it is worth remembering the fine line between the lack of pressure and permissiveness. Foxes like to imitate people and other dogs and this quality needs to be encouraged, because the explosive temperament is not always controlled by the teams and the dog must be able to make adequate independent decisions.
Important! In relation to strangers, foxes are incredulous and wary. If guests have come to you, do not weary the pet and let him get acquainted with the "strangers". By closing the dog in the room, you can place complexes in the ward that will result in passivity or aggression.
Hunting with a smooth-haired Fox Terrier is a “sport” that requires specific training, different from standard training. In a puppy, from a young age they develop courage, encourage anger towards the beast and natural curiosity. As soon as a strong contact is established between the owner and the dog, Fox is taught to loud sounds (shots) and train to track down the beast. By 12-18 months, after admission, the four-legged is displayed in the field, usually in the company of more experienced dogs.
Important! When buying a Fox Terrier puppy, you unconditionally refuse to purchase a hamster, rat or ferret. No matter how obedient your four-legged one may be, he is a hunter, whose purpose in life is the destruction of a small beast.
Training of a smooth-haired Fox Terrier, who lives in the house as a pet and companion, includes a number of basic commands and training in self-control. In the four-legged, they intentionally extinguish the anger towards the animals, since the hunting game becomes the cause of the shoots. Aggression is replaced by loads, games, difficult tricks and long walks.
The focus is on practicing the callMoreover, if the dog unquestioningly carries out the “To me” command on the site, this does not mean that you can safely lower it from the leash. The call is practiced in fake situations when the pet sees a "game", for example, a cat.
In addition to the voice command, trainers recommend training Fox to work with a whistle. Over a vast territory, the four-legged may not hear your voice, carried away, not see the gesture, and the whistle is distinguishable even with a strong wind or the sound of water.
Fox terriers are distinguished by tolerance to all family members and loyalty to the owner. An adult, socialized pet literally looks into the owner’s mouth, waiting for a command. Dogs love to serve, love to work and love to be praised - this is a very useful trait that should not be dulled by the constant encouragement of a treat.
Maintenance and care
When deciding to purchase a hunting dog, one must take into account the brisk temperament of the entire pedigree group, without exception. The fox terrier will perfectly adapt to life in the apartment if it receives full-fledged walking and regular loads. An excellent option would be to stay in a house with a well-fenced adjacent territory.
The issue of walks is worth considering in more detail. Fox has a hard, dense and resistant to pollution coat, but the four-legged is very active and it will be worn, dug and galloped in any weather. Considering that frequent bathing takes time of the owner and does not bring benefit to the pet. Most likely, you need clothing for a smooth-haired Fox Terrier, waterproof overalls will be enough. If you live in a region with harsh winters, you should think about a winter outfit.
Note! The dog is deprived of undercoat, and hypothermia leads to a weakening of the immune system. On the other hand, Fox Terriers are very active, which means that if your dog is well trained and you do not risk taking it off the leash, the need for warm clothes is very doubtful.
Loads are not a whim, not a moment of upbringing, but an obligatory component of caring for a dog. Terriers need to grow physically, work and get tired every day. If your pet is purchased as a pet and is not involved in the hunt, you need to choose alternatives. The most convenient and optimal option for a dog is sports.
Note! Fox terriers are suitable for any mobile type of training - agility, flyball, running next to a bicycle, aporting, coursing, offense, freestyle.
You can write a book on how to care for a smooth-haired Fox Terrier, but in the end all its chapters will be reduced to a number of standard rules, adjusted for the risk of food allergies. Any dog needs care in one way or another, nofoxes are considered unpretentious breed. To maintain an attractive appearance and physical shape of a pet, it is necessary:
- Perform daily examinations after a walk: claws, eyes, ears, teeth.
- Feeling the body for a splinter, abrasions, ticks.
- Inspect the paw pads and the area under the tail.
- Carry out antiparasitic prophylaxis, regardless of the type of content. Treatment from fleas and ticks is carried out 1 time in 3-4 months, from worms according to the instructions of an anthelmintic drug (usually 1 time in 3 months).
- Hair care includes weekly brushing, active combing during molting, bathing with the use of funds for wire-haired dogs.
- Cut the claws (if necessary) 1 time in 2-3 weeks and control their integrity.
- Inspecting your eyes with a flashlight in dim light for clouding is especially important for older animals.
- Inspect teeth to prevent tooth decay and tartar formation.
- Check your ears for parasites, redness, pain.
Questions about the proper nutrition of Foxes, more precisely, the likelihood of food allergies, scares many inexperienced owners. In fact, everything is not so complicated.Even if the dog suffers from allergies, a sharp reaction is observed only on a number of products or substances. Usually, as soon as a food allergy is diagnosed, the owner is confronted with the fact that until the end of his life the dog should receive only high-quality food from a specialized line.
In fact, you can feed a smooth-haired Fox Terrier with natural food, even if he is allergic. Start with a safe selection of foods, such as barley, chicken stock and beef tripe. Further, adding products one at a time and in small quantities, you can track the reaction of the pet.
Note! Do not worry that the selection process for “permitted” products will take a long time, because dogs prefer a constant diet of 5-6 products.
The smooth-haired Fox Terrier has a lifespan of 12-15 years old, subject to the absence of genetic diseases and quality care. Due to age and initial factory breeding, the breed has a number of hereditary diseases:
- Food allergy - It is expressed by an itch, a sharp smell of "dog", an excessively greasy coating on the hair, redness of the mucous membranes.
- Legg-Calve-Perthes Syndrome - An ailment affecting the musculoskeletal system, more precisely, the hip joints. With the development of the syndrome, there is a violation of blood circulation in the region of the heads of the tibia bones.
- Myasthenia gravis - A disease affecting neuromuscular endings. The first symptom is the weakness of the muscles of the hind legs, after, the disease affects the muscles of the peritoneum, intestines, etc. The disease is incurable and leads to the death of the animal, and it can only be revealed through a specific examination.
- Diabetes - A disease that develops due to a lack of insulin. The first signs are a sharp increase in the amount of urine and an increased level of glucose in the blood. The disease is incurable, but with regular injections of insulin, the dog can lead a full life.
- Cataract and Glaucoma - clouding of the lens of the eye (or both eyes) with a subsequent increase in intraocular pressure. The development of the disease is unpredictable both in terms of consequences and in the speed of development.
- Congenital Deafness - a hereditary disease leading to degeneration and death of the cochlea of the inner ear. The process is irreversible and is diagnosed quite early (at the age of 3-5 weeks).
- Epilepsy - a neurological disorder, expressed by uncontrolled convulsive attacks that can pass without a trace or carry complications, up to a fatal outcome.