Castration of a cat implies the surgical removal of paired genital glands - the testes, which secrete testosterone and in which sperm are formed. The operation is performed under anesthesia, during which the surgeon dissects the scrotum and cuts the testes with appendages.
The structure of the reproductive system
To find out what is removed during castration, you must first understand the structure of the reproductive system of the cat. At the bottom of the figure, all organs are schematically displayed.
In the figure above, the numbers indicate:
1. The testis.
2. Appendage of the testis
3. The vaginal membrane.
4. The scrotum.
5. The spermatic cord.
6. The vas deferens.
7. Vessels and nerves of the testis.
8. Ampoule of the vas deferens.
9. Bubble gland.
10. The prostate gland.
11. The onion gland.
12. Pelvic and oudal (12 ') parts of the urogenital canal.
13. The root of the penis.
14. S-shaped bend of the penis.
15. The initial part of the penis retractor.
16. The end of the penis retractor.
17. The head of the penis.
19. The inguinal canal.
20. The ventral wall of the pelvis.
21. The crotch.
When castration, the surgeon dissects the scrotum, all further manipulations take place only in it, so you need to disassemble the structure of only these organs.
The main genital organ in males, in which sperm mature, is produced by the male hormone testosterone. This enzyme is responsible for the sexual behavior of the cat, therefore, to achieve the desired result just remove the testes with the appendages.
The testis has an ovoid or oval shape. An appendage is attached to its upper part, where blood supply and innervation are laid. The testis is connected to the appendage using the mesentery. The entire structure is covered on top of the inner vaginal membrane, it is firmly fused with the connective tissue of the testis, the latter is also called the albumen.
The basis of the testis is the connective tissue, going from the upper protein membrane to the center in the form of strands, the latter crush the testis into chambers. Vascular and nerve trunks pass through the partitions. The cells contain a parenchyma, which is formed from a network of seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue, which produces testosterone.
The appendage is created by connective tissue, vessels, nerves, and the vas deferens. Outwardly, it looks like a winding tail, which comes from the head edge of the testis, goes down, then bends and rises up. The part of the appendage, which fuses with the testis at the top, is called the head. The section that goes down is called the body, and the part that goes up then is called the tail.
In the appendage there are many ejaculatory tubules, which wriggle strongly in it, so the length of the tubules increases. This serves to ensure that as much sperm as possible can be stored in the appendage, here they also mature. The seminiferous tubules in the tail of the appendage are connected and exit into the vas deferens.
The tail is attached to the testis with its own ligament of the testis, and is attached to the outer sheet of the common vaginal membrane using the inguinal ligament of the testis. Blood supply occurs due to the testis artery, and innervation due to the plexus of the testis.
Is a fold of the mesentery of the testis. In this fold, blood supply and innervation are laid. It is slightly flattened, going from the head edge of the testis to the inguinal opening. Behind it, the spermatic cord is divided into two parts: the vas deferens and the vascular fold. The first goes to the urogenital canal, and the second (with vessels and nerves) - to the lumbar region.
It leaves the appendage, the seminiferous tubules open into it. It consists of connective, mucous, serous and muscle tissue. The latter type plays an important role in copulation. Under the influence of hormones, muscle tissue begins to contract, and the sperm located in it erupt into the urogenital canal and are then thrown out.
The vas deferens from the appendage goes into the pelvic cavity, then bends and goes down, before flowing into the urogenital canal, it forms a glandular delta - an ampoule of the vas deferens. An ampoule with the vas deferens at the beginning of the urogenital canal, near the vesicular gland, enters.
An unpaired hollow organ that is the receptacle of the testes. The structure is the formation of the abdominal wall, therefore, has the same layers. The physiological value of the scrotum is that due to its external location, the temperature in it is lower than in the abdominal cavity. Which is very important for the development of sperm.
The outer shell of the scrotum is the skin. Under it there is no subcutaneous fat layer. Instead, the muscle-elastic membrane is located below, which is very firmly fused with the dermis. The muscular-elastic layer along the midline of the scrotum forms a septum, which divides the inner space of the scrotum into two chambers.
An external testis lifter is attached to the muscular-elastic membrane, which is a continuation of the internal abdominal oblique muscle. The external lifter goes from the base of the scrotum only along its lateral wall.
The next, even deeper layer is the common vaginal membrane, which is formed by fibrous and serous tissue. It covers the entire inner side of the scrotum and creates a common vaginal cavity, the latter opens through the inguinal canal into the abdominal space.
The testes are covered with a special vaginal membrane, which is formed from the peritoneum, it also participates in the formation of the common vaginal cavity. The testes are attached to it using a series of ligaments, which, with the open castration technique, intersect at the appendage.
With this surgical procedure, testes with appendages are excised. In total, there are two techniques for performing surgical intervention: the open and closed method. Both techniques are performed under anesthesia, as well as conduction and infiltration anesthesia.
First, prepare the surgical field, shave off the hair from the scrotum, treat the skin with an antiseptic. Then make a skin incision, then two possible scenarios:
- At open technique dissect all layers of the scrotum to the testes. Bandage the spermatic cord at the inguinal ring with threads. Then cut the testis with the appendage.
- At closed technique Do not touch the common vaginal membrane. It is simultaneously rotated 180 ° with the spermatic cord, tied and stitched with thread. Then cut the testis with the appendage.
With the closed technique, the passage to the abdominal cavity does not open, which is very important for hernias, old age and other pathologies. This is where the differences in technology end. At the end, the wound is sutured and the skin is treated with antiseptics. The whole procedure lasts 20-30 minutes.