During castration, the sex glands are removed surgically, and during sterilization, they remain and continue to function. This is the main difference. Sterilization of a cat without castration implies that the spermatic cord will be damaged or tied up, because of which sperm can not get into the vas deferens. As a result, the cat becomes barren with the full functioning of the genital glands. Surgical sterilization is called a vasectomy.
It is important to notethat with a vasectomy, the production of sex hormones does not decrease.
That is, the animal continues to mark territory, demand a cat, sing songs and behave aggressively. In addition, sterilization does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. Therefore, in most cases, such an operation does not have any value, since the meaning of all this is a change in behavior, and not just a halt to reproduction.
Castration and sterilization methods
There are several types of operations that have significant differences. All surgical interventions are performed under general anesthesia and anesthesia.
Bloody castration methods
They are named so because it is necessary to open the scrotum. They are divided into two types:
- Private method. Only the upper layer of the scrotum is cut - the skin. The lower layers do not touch, so that the passage to the abdominal cavity does not open, which is very important for some pathologies. The lower layers are ligated at the base of the scrotum and cut off as a single complex.
- Open method. Dissect all layers of the scrotum and get the testis. The most simple and frequent operation. The spermatic cord is ligated at the base of the scrotum, after which it is cut off along with the testis and appendage.
Bloodless castration method
It is so named due to the fact that with this technique no opening of the scrotum is required. The main objective of the operation is the destruction of the nerves and blood vessels of the spermatic cord, as a result of which the testes gradually atrophy. For destruction, use special forceps, clamps, scissors and other tools, of which there are a lot.
The main advantage is the speed and simplicity of the operation, since it does not require real surgical intervention. This reduces the postoperative period, and also reduces the risk of complications. The disadvantage is not a high guarantee of castration and cessation of hormonal activity of the genital glands.
With a vasectomy, the scrotum is cut, which makes the operation similar to bloody castration methods. However, the main difference is that during surgical intervention, not the entire spermatic cord as a whole is destroyed, but only the vas deferens. The vessels and nerves remain intact, so that the gonads continue to function.
The first few months may conceiving, so the cat needs to be protected from communication with cats. The operation can not be carried out during the period of sexual hunting. The risk of restoration of reproductive function is very small and amounts to no more than 0.1%. With the resumption of fertility, a vasectomy can be repeated.
A serious drawback is the complexity of the operation, since the testes of the cat are small in themselves, but here we must also separate the vessels, nerves and vas deferens. Not every veterinarian will undertake a vasectomy, and the risk of failure (maintaining fertility or accidental castration) is quite high.
Because of this, the operation has a rather high cost. After surgery, you need to carefully monitor the condition of the pet for 10-12 days. Sterilization does not affect the production and distribution of testosterone, so the cat is still ready to mate (because of this, hormonal and psychological problems can occur). Therefore, a vasectomy is more suitable for animals that live in pairs. This reduces the risk of mental problems due to rutting.
Chemical sterilization methods
There is a method of temporary sterilization of an animal, which consists in taking hormonal drugs. Similar to conventional drug contraception. The advantages of the method are that sterilization is reversible, with no surgical intervention required, there is no postoperative period and possible surgical complications.
The disadvantage is the hormonal drugs themselves. They must be taken constantly and the dosage must not be violated. This problem can be solved by the introduction of a subcutaneous implant, which gradually resolves and releases hormones over a long time. The second drawback is the risk of hormonal disorders due to the constant use of drug contraceptives.